ＳＡＬＥ ２０２８ ＬＯＴ １５２
$1,000,000 - $1,500,000
「歌撰恋之部 物思恋」 の女性に
「歌撰恋之部 物思恋」 ボストン シカゴ ギメ 平木
「歌撰恋之部 夜毎ニ逢恋」 ボストン 米国会図書館
「歌撰恋之部 あらはるる恋」ボストン シカゴ
「歌撰恋之部 稀ニ逢恋」 ボストン Irma Grabhorn-Leisinger コレクション 「歌撰恋之部 深く忍ぶ恋」 ギメ 東京国立博物館
Kitagawa Utamaro (1753?-1806)
Mono omou koi (Reflective Love), from the series of five prints entitled Kasen koi no bu (Anthology of Poems: The Love Section), c. 1793-94
A woman resting her head on her hand, lost in a daydream against a backdrop of luminous pink mica, signed Utamaro hitsu (from the brush of Utamaro), emblem of publisher Tsutaya Juzaburo--superb impression and color
oban tate-e: 37.6 x 25.5cm.
Hayashi Tadamasa (1853-1906), Paris
Asano Shugo and Timothy Clark, The Passionate Art of Kitagawa Utamaro, exh. cat. (London and Tokyo: British Museum Press and Asahi Shinbun, 1995), pl. 133 (nos. 134-37 show four other designs in the set); Shibui Kiyoshi, Utamaro (New York: Art of the East Library, 1962), pl. 17; Shibui Kiyoshi, Utamaro, Ukiyo-e zuten, vol. 13 (Tokyo: Kazama Shobo, 1964), 48.1; Kikuchi Sadao, Utamaro, Ukiyo-e taikei, vol. 5 (Tokyo: Shueisha, 1973), pl. 27; Money L. Hickman, Bosuton bijutsukan III (Boston Museum III), Ukiyo-e shuka, vol. 3 (Tokyo: Shogakkan, 1978), pl. 3; J[ack] Hillier, Utamaro: Color Prints and Paintings (London, 1961), no. 33; Catalogue of Highly Important Japanese Prints, Illustrated Books and Drawings, from the Henri Vever Collection: Part I, catalogue by Jack Hillier (London: Sotheby's, 1974), no. 175 (purchased by Huguette Berès); Collection Huguette Berès: Estampes, Dessins et Livres Illustrés (Paris: Sotheby's, 2002), pl. 50 ex. coll. Vever; Huguette Berès, Utamaro: Estampes, Livres Illustrés, intro. by Jack Hillier (Paris, 1976), no. 19; Yoshida Teruji, Utamaro zenshu (Tokyo: Takamizawa Mokuhansha, 1941), no. 156; Roger Keyes, "Kitagawa Utamaro sakuhin mokuroku" (Index of work by Kitagawa Utamaro), in Narazaki Muneshige, ed., Kitagawa Utamaro, Zaigai hiho, vol. 5 (Tokyo: Gakushu Kenkyusha, 1973), 43.1; pl. 16; Narazaki Muneshige, gen. ed., Hizo ukiyo-e taikan/Ukiyo-e Masterpieces in Western Collections, vol. 7 (Musée Guimet) (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1990), pl. 10; Narazaki, Hizo, suppl. vol. (Berès Coll.) (1990), pl. 51; Narazaki Muneshige, gen. ed., Meihin soroimono ukiyo-e, vol. 3 (Tokyo: Gyosei, 1991), pl. 10; Narazaki Muneshige, The Japanese Print: Its Evolution and Essence, English adaptation by C. H. Mitchell (Tokyo and Palo Alto, 1966), pl. 61 (Shibui coll. impression); Narazaki Muneshige and Kikuchi Sadao, Masterworks of Ukiyo-e: Utamaro, trans. John Bester (Tokyo, New York and San Francisco: Kodansha International, 1968), cover plate; Vignier & Inada, Utamaro, estampes japonaises...exposées au Musée des Arts Décoratifs en janvier 1912, intro. by Raymond Koechlin (Paris, 1912), no. XXXIV, 76; Laurence Binyon, Catalogue of Japanese and Chinese Woodcuts in the British Museum (London: The Trustees of the British Museum, 1916), cat. no. 17, 185
Musée National des Arts Asiatiques, Guimet (EO 1656); The Art Institute of Chicago, Clarence Buckingham Collection (1952.393); Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (21.6415); British Museum, 2 impressions (1937,0710,0.95; 1907,0531,0.113); Hiraki Ukiyo-e Museum; ex. coll. Huguette Berès, Paris
The Visual Poetry of Reflective Love
Imply, do not declare, advised the poet Mallarmé, the magic of art lies in suggestion. He may as well have been speaking of the approach of Kitagawa Utamaro (1753?-1806), whose formal distillation of sensuality was to fuse so seamlessly with the experiments of the European avant-garde a century later as to be absorbed into the universal canon of modernism.
Reflective Love started its world tour in eighteenth-century Edo (modern Tokyo), the "Paris of the East." Unknown hands kept it dark for decades before releasing it in the 1880s into cargo bound for a Japanese dealer in Paris. A touchstone of the print's greatness is its almost miraculous condition: the fragile, friable pink mica ground has not cracked, the fugitive natural pigments have not faded, the edges have not been trimmed. This impeccable example, the best of seven published impressions, is as close as we may come to how Utamaro intended us to see it in 1793: soft grey contours and intense colorplay in a rose glow.
Entwined under the Ivy
Utamaro and his publisher Tsutaya Juzaburo (1750-1797) collaborated between 1780 and 1797, when Tsutaya died. The reservoir of art and literature Tsutaya left behind proves that he was an exceptional talent who was quick to pick up the scent of genius and who had the personal skills to nurture and bring it to profit. Utamaro lived with Tsutaya from 1783 to 1788 adjacent to his shop, the Koshodo, just outside the Great Gate to the Yoshiwara pleasure quarter in Edo. The brightest lights of the time---the designers Sharaku, Shunsho, Hokusai, Choki; the writers Kyoden, Bakin, Ikku, to name few---benefited from the tutelage and hospitality within these doors.
Utamaro, Tsutaya and their friends made up Edo's sophisticated salon culture. A fruitful hunting ground for inspiration and clients was the Yoshiwara poetry circle led by Murata Ichibei (1754-1828), proprietor of the Daimonjiya brothel. Lively parties all around town were dedicated to the display and appreciation of kyoka, seven-line "mad verse" that revels in complicated allusion and multiple-entendre. Tsutaya composed under the name Entwined under the Ivy (Tsuta no Karamaru), a twist on the "tsuta" of his name that means "ivy," the emblem that appears on Reflective Love. Utamaro wrote under the penname Slip of the Brush (Fude no ayamaru).
The title of Reflective Love is a play on classical anthologies of poetry that are divided into thematic sections. Utamaro's audience would have made the instant connection to a host of verse. The woman's brilliant underrobe might recall an anonymous poem that cautions to keep love under wraps lest its flush catch people's eyes "like robes dyed purple with the violet grass" (Kokin waka shu [Collection of poems, old and new], comp. 10th century, XIII: 652). The Kokin waka shu devotes 360 of around 1100 poems to love, which are themselves organized by progression. Utamaro's Anthology of Poems follows the same sequence, named in the subtitles at the bottom of the rectangular cartouches. Reflective Love is the first, complemented by Deeply Hidden Love, Love that Meets Each Night, Obvious Love and Love that Rarely Meets. The literal subtitle of Reflective Love---mono (something) omou (thinking about) koi (love)---derives from the convention found in poems like this one by Emperor Komyo (1321-1380) from a suite of thirteen in the love section of Collection of Elegant Poems (Fuga waka shu; comp. 1343-49):
mono omou to How strange it is:
ware dani shiranu I keep falling into a vacant reverie
kono goro no of vague awareness
ayashiku tsune wa these days when in my mind itself
nagamegachi naru I do not know I really love.1
(Fuga waka shu X, 955)
The five women in Utamaro's Anthology set are shown half-length, with hand or hands showing, and range in age from teen (Love that Rarely Meets) to the unnamed woman here. Her shaved eyebrows indicate she is married or a matron, a woman in her twenties. Unlike so many of Utamaro's famous beauties she is not a courtesan. Her hairdo is a version of the Shimada style popularized by geisha that calls for the sidelocks to be stiffened with camellia nut oil, bent into triangles and the lengths folded into a low back loop. Duplicating these see-through strands in woodcut is where the block carver and printer are flaunting their wizardry. All Japanese prints before the twentieth century are the work of four experts: the artist who draws the design; the publisher who commissions, oversees production and markets the print; the engraver who carves the woodblocks; and the printer who inks the blocks and rubs the color into the paper. The quartet responsible for this beautiful dreamer has perfect pitch.
Her underrobe lies loose about her neck, as in a casual moment at the end of a day, and her eyes are unusually compressed to give the sense of the heavy-lidded stare of the daydreamer. Features or dress that might define personality or status or period are absent. Utamaro is using "delicious approximations" to decant the sensation from the scene.2
The visual glory of Reflective Love begins with the contrasts between the planes of color. The violet inner robe and matching silk hair tie are breathtaking. Purple, one of the most fugitive hues, tends to fade to grayish brown. The muted colors of the Reflective Love in the Musée Guimet prompted Richard Lane to remark on Utamaro's subdued palette.3 Its cool tone conveys a somber mood, a brooding over something lost or never to be. The impression here---the vermilion lips and cuff lining, the velvet swirl of hair---is stirring (fig. 1). The underrobe is in a traditional tie-dyed dappled pattern (kanoko shibori moyo) that appears often in Japanese prints, usually on undergarments. Utamaro uses it to stage intimate settings, as here. The middle robe has the trellis design of plain-weave robes from crossing warp and weft threads. The fabric of the outerrobe represents crepe treated with wax resist so that the clusters of plovers and dots, symbolizing clouds or waves, appear white against the dyed grey.
The pink mica ground is exceedingly rare. The mineral flakes were ground into fine powder and blown or shaken through a pipette onto a thin layer of glue size. Utamaro and Tsutaya had enhanced illustrated poetry albums with silver or white mica that they adapted to sheet prints of women in the 1790s for the surface of a mirror or a mirrorlike ground. They turned to beauty prints in earnest following near financial ruin, and jail time, that Tsutaya had suffered after having been found guilty for publishing three risqué books by another of his famous lodgers, Santo Kyoden (1761-1816).
Shibui Kiyoshi (1899-1992), a collector and scholar of Japanese woodcuts, offered that the pink mica of Reflective Love represents the light of a lantern. Extending his implication that the background is not simply a costly gloss, but is intended to establish mood by suggesting the time of day, one might equally see the pink as crepuscular. To take another step, consider the poem by Fujiwara Teika (1162-1241) using the same pivot, "vacant reverie" (omoi), to which Emperor Komyo linked his poem in the sequence mentioned above:
kino kyo Yesterday, today--
kumo no hatate nino matter how I gaze in vacant reverie
nagamu tote toward the cloud tips
mi mo senu hito notinted in the evening, how can I know
omoi ya wa shiru the feelings of one I cannot see?4
(Fuga waka shu X: 954)
Stéphane Mallarmé (1842-1898), crafter of the poetics of the everyday in the vocabulary of the exquisite, weaves a similar metaphor into a poem he inscribed on a shiny paper fan that he dedicated to his daughter. It begins, O rêveuse (Oh, dreamer), and ends with the rosy glint of sunset reflected in her bracelet. Essential to the poem is the lack of intermediate space between the young woman and the sinking horizon, a "dream space," in the words of Marshall Olds, "that quivers in its infinite suggestiveness."5 In another fan-poem to his wife, Mallarmé uses a mirror backdrop to project the poem to the person visualizing the image, who gives it voice. This metaphorical couplet has an astonishing accord with the dynamic working so flawlessly in Reflective Love, where the reflective ground becomes the medium between the poems and the viewer, who gives lyrical voice to the daydream.
Surprise the Universe
The red circle in the lower left of Reflective Love is the seal of Hayashi Tadamasa (1853-1906), the connoisseur-dealer through whose hands passed so many of the great Japanese prints now in Western private collections and museums (fig. 2). Destined for a career in public service, Hayashi seized the opportunity to serve as the representative of a Japanese trading firm exhibiting in the 1878 Exposition Universelle. He stayed on in Paris and eventually expanded into an independent dealer of Japanese art. Speaking excellent French, he moved easily in collectors' circles. Hayashi also began assembling his own collection of European art, which included paintings by Corot, Degas, Monet, Morisot, Renoir, Pissaro, Cassatt, Gaugin and Redon. Monet exchanged three canvases with Hayashi for a large Japanese vase. Degas traded several drawings for an erotic album by Hishikawa Moronobu (1630/31?-1694). From Japan Hayashi mailed iris bulbs and peony seedlings to Monet for his garden in Giverny. Degas, the artist whom Hayashi most admired, is said to have kept Hayashi's gift of the woodcut diptych Women inside a Bathhouse by Torii Kiyonaga (1752-1815) above his bed until his death.6 Bather Stepping into a Tub, a pastel of around 1890 by Degas, was purchased for $3100 at the 1913 auction of the Hayashi estate at the American Art Association, New York, by Louisine Havemeyer, who bequeathed it to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1929 (29.100.109, image accessible on the MMA website).
Hayashi enjoyed the felicitous combination of unlimited good stock and customers fervid for Things Japanese. Japan at the time was detaching itself from much of its native culture in its headlong embrace of modern technology and institutions. The societal shift propelled some old families into financial duress, coaxing many heirlooms into the marketplace. Hundreds of thousands of woodcuts left Japan, including some 160,000 prints and 10,000 books exported by Hayashi, who was vilified by the Japanese establishment for releasing these "vulgarities" on the outside world. Hayashi finessed the divide over high and low art by leaving prints out of the exhibition of Japanese treasures he curated for the 1900 Exposition Universelle.
Hayashi's society was not unlike Tsutaya's: artists, authors, publishers, tastemakers, bourgeois with means. Hayashi's 726 extant business letters are an absorbing testament to the collecting impulse and to his role as an aesthetic ambassador.7 Henri Vever (1854-1943) shows himself to be a tough customer, at least to his suppliers. After grinding down the price of two lacquer boxes, he warns, "Whatever you do, don't write me in the country about business so I'm chided for it by my wife!"8 Edmond de Goncourt (1822-1896) frequently asks for research assistance which was to culminate in his landmark Outamaro of 1891 and Hokousai of 1896. Between trips to his porcelain factory in Limoges, Charles Haviland (1839-1921) addressed numerous entreaties to Hayashi "to put aside for me the choice items that fall into your hands and those which my collection lacks."9 Guimet, Freer, Gonse, Cernuschi, Duret, Grosse and so on: the index to the correspondence is a star map to the cultural colony of the end-of-the-century West.
In ill health and seriously in debt because of his brother's mismanagement of their finances, Hayashi was obliged to close his gallery in 1902. If this catalogue entry describes it, Reflective Love was among his private holdings auctioned off in Paris that June: "806. Outamaro. Large bust of a woman on a mica ground, the head resting on the hand. Signed: Outamaro" (fig. 3). An ink margin note in a copy of the catalogue stamped Yamanaka & Company, New York, records the sale price: 47 francs, around $12, three times the daily earnings of a French miner and about six times the American minimum wage. The auction's expert, Siegfried Bing (1838-1905), was the other port for Japanese art in Europe and Hayashi's chief competitor. The impression of Reflective Love offered here appears to have passed from Hayashi to a French collection in which it remained for just short of a second century before being sold to the present owner.
His connections alone could have gained Hayashi welcome in any quarter of interest to him, but it was his refinement, connoisseurship and modesty that endeared him to his wide acquaintance. These qualities were not lost on visiting Japanese functionaries, who regularly called on Hayashi, or on Japanese artists, including the young Kuroda Seiki (1866-1924), seeking his endorsement and support. A piece in the New York Times, byline Paris, July 31, 1895, relates the art adventures of "Fresh, the American," of the eponymous 1881 farce, who "hunted the latest foreign fad, and he discovered it, with true Christopher Columbus instinct. The boulevards will wake up later. He found the Japanese emporium of the famous Hayashi. . . ." In a curious mix of flippancy and prescience, the tale reveals "Hayashi's Japanese Secret": a new generation of Japanese artists to reconceive the Western recipes, as their mentors had those of the East, to "blossom suddenly and surprise the universe."
The scholar-collector Raymond Koechlin (1860-1931) maintained that Hayashi Tadamasa was the only Japanese who truly loved and understood European art. While it cannot be overstated how profoundly Hayashi influenced the course of modern art in the West, it should be remembered that he also introduced the Impressionists to Japan. Unfortunately, the 500 paintings, drawings and prints Hayashi donated to the Japanese nation in 1905 and that he envisioned for a museum of Western art found a different reception from that of the Japanese art he had brought to Paris. They languished in storage until 1913, when a third was dispersed at auction in New York.10
Hayashi's business papers include receipts for around 90 of his European paintings and drawings, principally from the galleries of Alphonse Portier (d. 1902) and Paul Durand-Ruel (1828 or '31-1922), whose own contributions parallel those of Utamaro's agent, Tsutaya Juzaburo. Hayashi lent nine paintings by the Impressionist Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) to the 1896 memorial exhibition of her work that was organized by Monet, Degas, Mallarmé and Renoir and held at Durand-Ruel.11 One of Hayashi's loans, Interior of 1872, presents a woman seated in left profile, eyes unfocused, deep in her own thoughts (fig. 4). To the right is a silver tea service awaiting a guest to take her place in the empty chair; palm fronds and trailing vines intrude from a bouquet out of view. Just behind, hangs a garden painting or, one might propose, a mirror reflecting a canvas on the opposite wall. At the left a girl and her nanny look through sun-drenched curtains onto an unseen street. The women are Morisot's family observed in a private moment that the artist intensifies with several tropes: the detached figures, the picture-within-the-picture, the missing guest and the play between interior and exterior/public and private space. Morisot's affinities with compositional aspects of the Japanese prints and paintings she collected and used in her paintings are documented along with those of her circle. In a letter to Mallarmé she writes of her anticipated return visit with Mary Cassatt to the display of "the marvelous Japanese," an exhibition at the Ecole des Beaux Arts of 700 woodcuts from Parisian collections organized by Bing in 1890. It is well known that the works in this exhibition, in particular those of Utamaro, had a deep effect on Cassatt and that her enthusiasm brought her American acquaintances into Hayashi's shop; a terse message reads: "I am taking the three Utamaro prints for 2500 francs.-H.O. Havemeyer, 20 September, 1897."12 Hayashi owned at least three pictures by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926), including a pastel of around 1894 known as Pensive Reader that was another in his legacy to Japan, now in the Smithsonian Institution, Hirshhorn Museum (fig. 5). Cassatt poses a young woman half-length over a tabletop, lost in thought over a book. Her head rests in one hand while the other idly fingers the pages. She wears a blue dress over a pink underblouse flush against a warm backdrop of yellow, brown and pink.
In what were to be her last years, Morisot embarked on a series of pictures devoted to the expression of reverie. In Young Woman Reclining of 1893, a girl on a divan rests her head on her hand, gazing absently out of the picture frame (fig. 6). Flowered curtains filter the strong shafts of late afternoon. A formal departure from Morisot's earlier paintings, her assured contours and flashing surface planes are in service of atmosphere veiled in an enigmatic sensuality and restraint in sympathy with Utamaro's Reflective Love. Both works conscientiously abstract the quotidian setting, calling the viewer into timeless dream space with the gorgeous notes of line, color and light.
In his elegy to his great friend Berthe Morisot in the memorial exhibition catalogue, Stéphane Mallarmé exposes his conviction that art is to be an inner mirror to stimulate through the appropriation of Beauty a reverie that infers the mystery and meaning of the universe. Reflective symbols (minerals, mirrors, ice, windows) are markers of a process by which the soul, gazing out, looks within. He acknowledges the "foreign" strain in Morisot's work, by which he means the elements of the Japanese aesthetic that she/he extracted into their own artistic and intellectual compound being minted for the future, a "fusion of recent illuminations with older lights."13 Mallarmé argues that the nuanced language shared by painter and poet is an abbreviated, allusive vernacular--the modern poetics of suggestion--in which he conjures this elliptical tribute:
Here, canvases recede, dispersing a radiant caress, idyllic, fine, powdery, diaphanous in my memory, leaving an armature of superb design attesting to the science behind the purposeful marks, colors aside . . . work for the public to appreciate with the pure senses, dipped in this pearl and silvery luster. Should one keep silent in the intimacy of suggestion trying to impart itself on this occasion, a moment suspended in shimmering perpetuity?. . . . To poetize through plastic art, using direct illusions, seems, without forcing it, to be the effect of the atmosphere awakening from their surfaces their luminous secret . . . .
1. Robert H. Brower and Earl Miner, Japanese Court Poetry (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961), 405.
2. "De délicieux à-peu-près," Crise de Vers (Crisis of Verse), in Stéphane Mallarmé (1842-1898), Divagations (Paris: Charpentier, 1897). For an English translation see Divagations, trans. Barbara Johnson (Cambridge, MA and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007), 203. "Paint not the thing, but the effect it produces," from an undated letter  Mallarmé to Henri Cazalis, is a clarion of modern Symbolist theory.
3. Richard Lane, Images from the Floating World (New York: Dorset Press, 1978), caption pl. 139.
4. Brower and Miner, 405. The translation there puts the poem in the male voice, using "her" in the last line, but it can be equally read in the female voice, as used here.
5. Posted on the Web: Marshall C. Olds, Under Mallarmé's Wing (University of Nebraska--Lincoln, Modern Languages and Literatures, Department of French Language and Literature Papers, 2001).
6. Correspondance addressée à Hayashi Tadamasa, ed. Brigitte Koyama-Richard (Tokyo: Tokyo Institute, Independent Administrative Institution, National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, 2001), 25.
7. Correspondance, passim.
8. June 11, 1899, Correspondance, letter 340, 298.
9. October 20, 1894, Correspondance, letter 110, 166.
10. 165 lots of paintings, pastels, drawings and prints were sold by the estate of Hayashi Tadamasa at the American Art Assocation, New York, Jan. 8--9, 1913, accompanied by a fully illustrated catalogue with forewords by Ernst Grosse (1862-1927) and Raymond Koechlin. 197 drawings by Paul Renouard (1845-1924) were bequeathed to the Imperial Museum, Tokyo, in 1915; the remainder of the Hayashi collection was sold off piece by piece by his heirs, who currently hold about a dozen works, including some by Théodore Rousseau.
11. Berthe Morisot (Madame Eugène Manet): Exposition de son oeuvre du 5 mars au 21 mars 1896 chez Durand-Ruel, rue Lafitte et rue Le Peletier, preface Portrait de Berthe Morisot by Stéphane Mallarmé, photogravure of portrait by Edouard Manet ([Paris], 1896).
12. Correspondance, letter 261, 248.
13. Mallarmé, from Solitude, in Divagations.